Buddha, the Word: The Eightfold Path
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The Noble Eightfold is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering (dukkha) and the achievement of self-awakening. It is used to develop insight into the true nature of phenomena (or reality) and to eradicate greed, hatred, and delusion. The Noble Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Buddha's Four Noble Truths; the first element of the Noble Eightfold Path is, in turn, an understanding of the Four Noble Truths. It is also known as the Middle Path or Middle Way. All eight elements of the Path begin with the word "right," which translates the word samyanc (in Sanskrit) or samma (in Pali). These denote completion, togetherness, and coherence, and can also suggest the senses of "perfect" or "ideal." 'Samma' is also translated as "wholesome," "wise" and "skillful." According to the bhikkhu (monk) and scholar Walpola Rahula, the divisions of the noble eightfold path "are to be developed more or less simultaneously, as far as possible according to the capacity of each individual. They are all linked together and each helps the cultivation of the others." Bhikkhu Bodhi explains that "with a certain degree of progress all eight factors can be present simultaneously, each supporting the others. However, until that point is reached, some sequence in the unfolding of the path is inevitable."
with the paths. Now, in understanding wrong-mindedness as wrong, and right-mindedness as right, one practices Right Understanding (1st step); and in making efforts to overcome evil-mindedness, and to arouse right-mindedness, one practices Right Effort (6th step); and in overcoming evil-mindedness with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right-mindedness, one practices Right Attentiveness (7th step). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon
Suffering is; knows according to reality, what the Path is that leads to the Extinction of Suffering. Thus he dwells in contemplation of the phenomena, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the phenomena arise; beholds how they pass away; beholds the arising and passing away of the phenomena. "Phenomena are there this consciousness is present in him because of his knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the
single object ("One-pointedness of mind"): this is concentration. The four Fundamentals of Attentiveness (seventh step): these are the objects of concentration. The four Great Efforts (sixth step): these are the requisites for concentration. The practicing, developing and cultivating of these things: this is the "Development" of concentration. (Right Concentration has two degrees of development: 1. "Neighborhood-Concentration," which approaches the first trance, without however attaining it; 2.
things, that I, Disciples, as well as you, had to wander so long through this round of rebirths. And what are these four things? They are the Noble Truth of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the Extinction of Suffering. As long as the absolutely true knowledge and insight as regards these Four Noble Truths was not quite clear in me, so long was I not sure, whether I had won that supreme
world, it still remains a firm condition, an immutable fact and fixed law: that all formations are impermanent" that all formations are "subject to suffering"; that everything is "without an Ego." (The word sankhara (formations) comprises all things which have a beginning and an end, the so-called created, or "formed" things, i.e., all possible physical and mental constituents of existence.) A corporeal phenomenon, a feeling, a perception, a mental formation, a consciousness, that is permanent