Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600-1400
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This book brings a fresh understanding to cross-cultural Sino-Indian encounters, elucidating for the first time significant changes in the religous, commerical, and diplomatic interactions between the two countries.
o r u Funayama, and Catherine Ludvik have each contributed to this pro ject. Jinhua, i n particular, read the first three chapters and sent me some of his forthcoming publications on Sui and Tang Buddhism. His essays and the detailed comments on the chapters were most use ful i n correcting and elaborating some of the factual details. Simi larly, the discussions I have had with Funayama-san have proved extremely fruitful when dealing with Chinese Buddhism i n general. Catherine, on the other
Chinese views on Indians and their attractions toward Buddhist sites i n South Asia exemplify the spiritual bonds that linked and, at the same time, stimulated the interactions between India and C h i n a during the seventh century. 174 CHAPTER The TWO E m e r g e n c e o f C h i n a as a m Devaputra, it is because of the numberless roots of good that you have planted, that now you have obtained so luminous a light and it is because of this, oh Devaputra, that in the last period following
for those trying to asso ciate Mahjusri's prophetic abode with M o u n t Wutai. The Avatamsaka Sutra, parts of which were written i n Central A s i a , notes that, "In the northeast there is a place where bodhisattvas live. It is called Clearand-Cold Mountain. In the past, various bodhisattvas would often dwell within [this mountain]. Now present there is the bodhisattva called Mahjusri." Clear-and-Cold M o u n t a i n (Qingliangshan) was i n fact an alternate name for M o u n t Wutai. Etienne
trade. She concludes that the success of this complex economic net work of Sino-Indian trade lay i n the interdependence between long distance trade, urbanization, Buddhist theology, and the transmission of Buddhist doctrines to China. 8 9 10 11 12 This penetrating conclusion drawn by X i n r u L i u is employed in this and the next chapter as the premise for examining changes in the patterns of Sino-Indian commerce after the severith century. O f foremost concern is the issue of
as grain and cloth, left little, i f any, real surpluses for private trade. In addition, the use of corvee labor by the government to transport staple commodities made it difficult for merchants to compete with state prices for most bulk products. 38 39 40 Many of the stringent regulations on trade and merchants i n C h i n a seem to have originated from Confucian antipathy toward mercantile activities. N o t only was the profession of unproductive profit-making condemned, the merchant class