Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Routledge Companion Encyclopaedias)
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The Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy is a unique one-volume reference work which makes a broad range of richly varied philosophical, ethical and theological traditions accessible to a wide audience.
The Companion is divided into six sections covering the main traditions within Asian thought: Persian; Indian; Buddhist; Chinese; Japanese; and Islamic philosophy. Each section contains a collection of chapters which provide comprehensive coverage of the origins of the tradition, its approaches to, for example, logic and languages, and to questions of morals and society. The chapters also contain useful histories of the lives of the key influential thinkers, as well as a thorough analysis of the current trends.
asterisms consisting of six stars (Kṛttikas) rise whenever they are in the proximity of the fourth lunar aṣterism containing five stars figured by a cart (Rohiṇi). The Indian logicians, particularly the Naiyāyikas and the Pūrva Mīmāṁsakas, disagree whether each of the sentences is a reliable generality which could be legitimately used in the justification procedure. However, they all agree that (9) is not a reliable generality sentence, that it expresses an accidental, not a nomological,
of the Buddha’s life, and also in due course (from the begin-ning of the first century AD at least) Buddha-statues. In the earlier representations the Buddha appears by his absence. His disciples and other characters are fully depicted or sculpted. The Buddha is marked by associated objects and the like—such as the wheel-shaped mark of his footprints, his throne, his begging-bowl, the bodhi tree and so on. The non-depiction of the Buddha was most probably a way of conveying his transcendental
dispositions and qualities, (4) fourteen formations unassociated with either mind or matter (rūpacittaviprayuktasaṃskāras), including the phases through which entities pass in arising and ceasing and a glue-like ‘obtainer’ (prāpti) that assures karmic continuity and (5) unconditioned (asaṃskṛta) dharmas, which are three: space and non-analytical and analytical cessations (the latter include nirvaṇna). These seventy-five dharmas into which reality may be analysed are said by Sarvāstivāda all to be
to receive an impressive welcome from Vietnamese Buddhists, including a large contingent of Buddhist youth. Buddhism in Laos46 The Buddhism of Laos, like that of Burma, Thailand and Cambodia, is traditionally of the Hīnayāna form, and uses the Theravāda scriptures, in Pali. The period of its great expansion was in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This was followed by a period of foreign invasions and internal warfare and the decline of Buddhism, particularly in the nineteenth century;
other and are found perfectly harmo-nized and united with one another. A thing is empty, but is also temporarily existent. It is temporary because it is empty, and the fact that everything is empty and at the same time temporary is the Middle truth.30 On the basis of the Lotus Sūtra and Tendai doctrine, Saichō strongly emphasized a universal salvation in terms of Ekayāna and the realization of ultimate reality in this actual life in terms of ‘Thusness’. These two emphases characterized Japanese