Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Volumes 1-2
Robert E. Buswell Jr.
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Providing a comprehensive overview of one of Asia's most important religious and social forces, the Encyclopedia of Buddhism describes the Buddhist world view, basic teachings and practices of Buddhism, as well as its different schools and sects. In addition to containing entries on Buddhist scriptures, art, architecture, saints, demons, monastic orders, festivals, rites and ceremonies, this 2-vol. set explores the history of Buddhism, the different forms it has taken in different parts of the world, and how Buddhism has blended with other religions like Shinto, Confucianism, Daoism and Christianity.
Cambodia, it has been suggested, a ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BUDDHISM backlash against the extravagant Mahayana expressions of Jayavarman VII led to a “Hindu revival,” and Theravadins may have used this as an opportunity to assert their own interpretations and practices. During the course of the next two centuries, Theravada Buddhism became assimilated into all levels of Khmer society and synthesized in court and villages with older brahmanic and spirit practices, such as agricultural fertility rites
from Indian sources. The RENWANG JING (HUMANE KINGS SUTRA) described corruption in all segments of society, natural calamities and epidemics, state control and persecution of Buddhism, and the neglect of precepts by Buddhist adherents. The suggested solution to this crisis was the perfection of wisdom (prajñaparamita), whose 27 ARHAT efficacy would restore order in religion and society and even protect the state from extinction. The scripture was popular in medieval East Asia, especially
under the bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya. Also called the seat of enlightenment (bodhimand a), this throne is said to be located at the earth’s navel, the only place on earth that rests directly on the primordial layer of golden earth supporting the cosmos. Only there can the earth support a buddha undergoing full enlightenment without breaking apart. The bodhimand a numbers among the numerous invariables in all buddhas’ biographies, which have only three distinguishing features. These are the genus of
(Makransky, pp. 85–87). In the Perfection of Wisdom sutras, the term dharmata (literally “thinghood”) refers to the real nature of things, undivided in their emptiness yet diverse in their appearance. In treatises that formalized the concept of the buddhas’ unrestricted nirvana, the dharmata of all things as the limitless field of the buddhas’ enlightened knowledge and power came to be referred to as dharmakaya, now meaning the buddhas’ “embodiment of dharmata” (of ultimate reality; Makransky,
Panchen Lama San˙ gha Alan Sponberg University of Montana Kuiji Maitreya xxiv Cyrus Stearns Clinton, Washington Sa skya (Sakya) Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt University of Pennsylvania Monastic Architecture Jacqueline I. Stone Princeton University Daimoku Lotus Sutra (Saddharmapundarl ka-sutra) Nichiren Nichiren School Original Enlightenment (Hongaku) Soka Gakkai Tanya Storch University of the Pacific Dao’an Sengzhao Zhao lun Paul Strachan Gerona, Spain Ananda Temple Myanmar, Buddhist Art in